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No. 3/2020
JMM 3-20 okl www.jpg
The cover of the JMM issue 3/2020

Contents


Lech BULKOWSKI
Urszula GALISZ
Krzysztof RADWAŃSKI

Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy

TECHNOLOGY FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CATHODES INTENDED FOR SPRAYING BACTERICIDAL COATINGS ON GLASS SURFACES

The paper presents the course and results of research into the production of cathodes for sputtering bactericidal coatings on glass surfaces in an industrial magnetron line at D.A. Glass. The study included the development of an innovative and comprehensive technology for producing various types of cathodes using a vacuum induction furnace. FactSage software was used for numerical simulations of phase transformations in the liquid and solid phase during the cooling and solidification of alloys, and the liquidus and solidus temperatures were determined using the thermal analysis method (DTA). The cathodes were made by casting plates that are components of ready-made cathodes.
Zonal macrosegregation tests were carried out in the plate casting, which showed that the cast plates were characterised by high homogeneity in the entire volume. The chemical compositions of the cathodes corresponded to the required compositions, and their quality met the requirements for installation in a magnetron, which proves the correctness of the developed technologies of their production.
The layers on the glass, sputtered in a magnetron device, were subjected to microbiological tests to determine the bactericidal (biocidal) properties of the glass. Preliminary results of these studies showed that the cathodes based on brass and bronze of the following type exhibited the best bactericidal properties: Cu90Sn10, Cu90Zn10, Cu80Zn10Al10, Cu80Ti20 and Cu65Ni18Zn17. The layers produced on the glass with the use of these cathodes exhibited the ability to deactivate the tested strains of microorganisms, including the elimination of bacterial growth. To further improve these properties, the composition of copper-based cathodes with various additions of tin and titanium, and with the addition of the following rare earth elements: cerium and lanthanum, which will be subjected to layer sputtering in the magnetron and microbiological tests as part of the next stages of the project, was modified.

Keywords: multi-component alloys, physical properties, cathodes, manufacturing technology, magnetron technology, microbiological tests, biocidal glasses


Jarosław OPARA
Roman KUZIAK

Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy

STUDY OF PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN COMPLEX PHASE STEEL USING A MESOSCALE CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL
PART I: MODELING FUNDAMENTALS

A two-dimensional mesoscale model based on the concept of hybrid cellular automata is developed to study phase transformations in a complex phase steel during continuous cooling. The model is capable of simulating microstructure evolution with carbon diffusion in the volume and along grain boundaries, γ/α interfaces migration into austenite, as well as formation of bainite and martensite islands during intensive cooling in lower temperatures. In contrast to the classic statistical approaches which are based on the assumption of modeling one point in the material with homogeneous microstructure, the proposed phase transformations’ model in the mesoscale accounts for material heterogeneity. The simulation results in the form of a digital material representation with microstructures and maps showing the carbon concentration field as well as microhardness distribution are presented. One of the main advantages of the model is that has only seven adjustment coefficients that are used in the fitting process.

Keywords: phase transformations, complex phase steel, cellular automata, mesoscale model


Jarosław OPARA
Roman KUZIAK

Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy

STUDY OF PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN COMPLEX PHASE STEEL USING A MESOSCALE CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL
PART II: EXPERIMENTS AND VALIDATION

A two-dimensional mesoscale model based on the concept of hybrid cellular automata was used to study phase transformations in a complex phase steel during continuous cooling. This model enables simulation of the decomposition of austenite into ferrite, bainite, and martensite, accompanied by calculations of volume and grain boundary diffusion of carbon. In effect, as a result, one can observe the morphology of simulated microstructures, corresponding carbon segregation as well as microhardness distribution. These results with the kinetics of austenite to ferrite phase transformation and predicted values of the complex phase steel hardness are the subject of model validation. A series of dilatometric experiments were carried out with constant cooling rates in order to construct a CCT diagram and validate the presented model. The convergence of simulated results with empirical outcomes was confirmed quantitatively using a dedicated goal function and data summaries in the table and graphs. However, some qualitative and quantitative discrepancies in terms of microstructure morphology are indicated which was possible thanks to applying a wide range of different validation parameters of the model. It is emphasized how crucial is the use of appropriate validation methodology.

Keywords: phase transformations, complex phase steel, cellular automata, mesoscale model, dilatometry, microstructure characterization, model validation


 

2020-11-24


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